Conjunction

Pengertian Conjunction

Conjunction adalah kata yang berfungsi untuk menghubungkan antara kata, frasa, klausa, atau kalimat. Dengan menggunakan conjuction, kita bisa membuat kalimat yang kompleks. Selain itu, conjuction membuat kita menghindari ketidakberaturan kalimat-kalimat pendek dan membuat writing flow kita menjadi lebih baik.

Tanpa conjunction, kita dipaksa untuk mengungkapkan setiap gagasan kompleks menjadi kalimat-kalimat simple seperti contoh kalimat di bawah ini.

Sandy asked me to come to her party. I could not come. I got sick at that day.

conjunction illustration

Sumber gambar: choolsquestiontime.org

Lihat juga materi StudioBelajar.com lainnya:
Conditional Sentences
Part of Speech

Aturan Penggunaan Conjunction

Terdapat beberapa aturan penting dalam penggunan conjuction, yaitu:

1. Conjuction digunakan untuk menghubungkan ide, tindakan, dan noun, clause, serta kelas kata lainnya.

Contoh kalimat: Sarah and I went to the movies and watched The Nutcracker and The Four Realms.

2. Conjunction berguna untuk membuat list.

Contoh kalimat: John makes pancakes, eggs, and coffee for breakfast.

3. Ketika menggunakan conjunction, pastikan bahwa kelas kata yang dihubungkan dengan conjunction bersifat paralel (mempunyai struktur yang sama).

Contoh kalimat:

  • I learn fast and carefully.
  • I learn fast and am careful.

Jenis-jenis Conjunction

1. Coordinating Conjunction

Sering disebut dengan istilah “Fan Boys” conjuction.

Coordinating Conjunction Fungsi Contoh Kalimat Coordinating Conjunction
For Menghubungkan sebab pada akibat. I had to clean the floor as a punishment for making a mess.
And Menghubungkan ide sekelas dan sama. I like fishing and hunting.
Nor Menghubungkan dua kalimat negatif. She doesn’t eat meat, nor does she drink milk.
But Menghubungkan ide sekelas namun berbeda. I like to eat fish, but not to catch them.
Or Menghubungkan dua pilihan sekelas. Do you want to drink tea or coffee?
Yet Menghubungkan ide sekelas namun bertolak belakang. It’s sunny yet cold.
So Menghubungkan akibat pada sebab. I didn’t get enough sleep last night, so I’m so sleepy right now.

2. Correlative Conjunction

Correlative conjunction selalu berpasangan.

Correlative Conjunction Contoh Kalimat Correlative Conjunction
Both … and Both London and Paris are worth to visit.
Not only … but also Japanese food is not only delicious but also beautiful to look at.
Either … or It’s going to rain! Bring either an umbrella or a raincoat.
Neither … nor My grandfather could neither read nor write.
Whether … or I am not sure whether he is lying or not.

3. Subordinating Conjunction

Subordinating conjunction merupakan kata pertama dalam dependent clause. Conjunction ini digunakan untuk tiga jenis klausa, yaitu:

Adverb Clause

Fungsi Subordinating Conjunction Contoh Kalimat Subordinating Conjunction
Waktu After

As, Just as

As long as

As soon as

Before

Since

Until

When

Whenever

While

Just as we left, he came.

I waited as long as I could.

While I was studying, she called me.

Tempat Where

Wherever

Anywhere

Everywhere

I like to shop wherever there is a sale.

I use my credit card everywhere I shop.

Cara As, Just as

As if

As though

I love wearing make-up as most women do.

 

Jarak As + adverb + as We will hike as far as we can before it turns dark.
Frekuensi As often as I call my parents as often as I can.
Sebab As

Because

Since

I can’t take evening class since I work at night.
Tujuan So that

In order that

He moves so that his home is not too far from his office.
Akibat So + adjective + that

So + adverb + that

Such a(n) + noun + that

So much/many/little/few + noun + that

I was so tired last night that I fell asleep at dinner.

She talked so softly that I cannot hear her voice.

It was such an easy test that all students got A’s.

Kondisi If

Unless

We won’t go diving unless the weather is better.
Partial Contrast Although

Even though

Though

I love my brother though we always have different opinions.
Perbedaan While

Whereas

My brother likes hard rock, while I prefer classical music.

Adjective Clause

Fungsi Conjunction Contoh Kalimat
Menunjuk kepada orang Who

Whom

Whose

They didn’t approve the man whom my sister married.

An orphan is a child whose parents are dead.

Menunjuk kepada orang atau benda Which

That

My new phone which I bought yesterday stopped working.
Menunjuk kepada waktu dan tempat When

Where

An orphanage is a place where orphans live.

Noun Clause

Fungsi Conjunction Contoh Kalimat
That clauses That Do you believe that there’s life is outer space?
If/whether clauses Whether

Whether or not

Whether… or not

If

If… or not

I can’t remember whether I locked the door.

I can’t remember if I locked the door.

Question clauses Who, whoever, whom

Which, what, where

When, why, how

How much, how many

How long, how often, etc

Do you know where the bus station is?

He didn’t care how long he had to wait.

Conjunctive Adverb

Digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua independent clause.

Fungsi Conjunction Contoh Kalimat
Menambah ide yang sama Also

Besides

Futhermore

In addition

Moreover

I’m a student; also, I work at coffee shop.
Menambah kelanjutan yang tak diduga However

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

Still

I can’t cook very well; however, I make quite good omelettes.
Menambah perbedan In contrast

On the other hand

Sarah is ambitious; in contrast, her brother is quite lazy.
Menambah akibat As a result

Consequently

Therefore

Thus

Joh’s lazy; thus, he gets C in Math class.
Membuat list sesuai urutan waktu Meanwhile

Afterward

Then

Subsequently

I went to supermarket; then, I went home.
Memberi contoh For example

For instance

Our identity can be identified by several aspects; for example, we can define ourselves by mentioning our physical appearance.
Memperlihatkan kesamaan Similarly

Likewise

Surabaya has hot weather; similarly, Jakarta’s average temperature is 34oC.
Memperlihatkan pernyataan kedua yang benar Instead

On the contrary

Rather

They planned to go to Bali; instead, they went to Lombok.
Memberi kemungkinan lain Alternatively

On the other hand

You can live in a dorm of campus; alternatively, you can rent a room off campus.
Menambah penjelasan Otherwise Identity is the answer of the question ‘Who are you?’; in other words, identity is the way that we use to represent ourselves.
Membuat pernyataan yang lebih kuat Indeed

In fact

Berries are common fruits; indeed, people love berries.

Referensi:

Oshima, A., & Hogue, A. (2006). Writing Academic English (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Longman.

Artikel: Conjunction
Kontributor: Nanda Ayu, S.Hum.
Alumni Sastra Inggris UI